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2014  年职称英语等级考试真题(理工类 B  级)

第 第 1  部分:词汇选项 (第 1~15 题,每题 1 分,共 15 分)
下面每个句子中均有 1 个词或者短语划有底横线, 请为每处划线部分确定 1 个意义
最为接近的选项。
1.The majority of people around here are decent.
A.real  B .honest  C.normal  D.wealthy
2.The curriculum was too narrow and too rigid.
A.hidden  B.traditional  C .inflexible  D.official
3.The committee was asked to render a report on the housing situation.
A .furnish  B.copy  C.publish  D.summarize
4.Afterwards there was just a feeling of let down.
A.excitement  B .disappointment  C.anger  D.calm
5.Several windows had been smashed.
A.cleaned  B.replaced  C.fixed  D .broken
6.The worst agonies of the war were now beginning.
A .pains  B.parts  C.aspects  D.results
7.London quickly became a flourishing port.
A.major  B.large  C .successful  D.commercial
8.She felt that she had done her good deed for the day.
A.homework  B.justice  C.model  D .act
9.He led a very moral life.
A .human  B.intelligent  C.natural  D .honorable
10.His stomach felt hollow with fear.
A.sincere  B.respectful  C .empty  D.terrible
11.It was a magic night until the spell was broken.
A.time  B .charm  C.space  D.opportunity
12.His professional career spanned 16 years.
A.started  B.changed  C.moved  D .lasted
13.They are trying to identify what is wrong with the present system.
A .discover  B.prove  C.consider  D.imagine
14.His knowledge of French is fair.
A.very useful  B .very limited  C.quite good  D.rather special
15.The group does not advocate the use of violence.
A.limit  B.regulate  C.oppose  D .support


第 2  部分:阅读判断 (第 16~22 题,每题 1 分,共 7 分)
下面的短文后列出了 7 个句子,请根据短文的内容对每个句子做出判断;如果该句
提供的是正确信息,请选择 A;如果该句提供的是错误信息,请选择 B;如果该句的信
息文中没有提及,请选择 C。

So Many “Earths”
The Milky Way contains billions of Earth-sized planets that could support life that's the
finding of a new study. It draws on date that came from NASA's top planet-hunting telescope.
A mechanical failure recently put that Kepler space telescope out of service. Kepler had
played a big role in creating a census of planets orbiting some 170,000 stars. Its data have been
helping astronomers predict how common planets are in our galaxy. The telescope focused on
hunting planets that might have conditions similar to those on Earth.
The authors of a study published in The Proceedings of the National Academy of sciences,
conclude that between 14 and 30 out of every 100 stars, with a mass and temperature similar to
the Sun, may host a planet that could support life as we know it.
Such a planet would have a diameter at least as large as Earth's, but no more than twice
that big. The planet also would have to orbit in a star's habitable zone. That's where the surface
temperature would allow any water to exist as a liquid.
The new estimate of how many planets might fit these conditions comes from studying
more than 42,000 stars and identifying suitable worlds orbiting them. The scientists used those
numbers to extrapolate to the rest of the stars that the telescope could not see.
The estimate is rough, the authors admit. If applied to the solar system, it would define as
habitable a zone starting as close to the Sun as Venus and running to as far away as Mars.
Neither planet is Earthlike (although either might have been in the distant past). Using tighter
limits, the researchers estimate that between 4 and 8 out of every 100 sunlike stars could host
an Earth-sized world. These are ones that would take 200 to 400 days to complete a yearly orbit.
Four out of every 100 sunlike stars doesn't sound like a big number. It would mean,
however, that the Milky Way could host more than a billion Earth-sized planets with a change
for life.
16.The Kepler space telescope has been in service for 15 years.
A.Right  B.Wrong  C .Not mentioned
17.The main task of the Kepler space telescope is to find out planets with similar conditions
to Earth's.
A .Right  B.Wrong  C.Not mentioned
18.The planet that could support life might be a little bit smaller than Earth.
A.Right  B .Wrong  C.Not mentioned
19.The Earth is planet orbiting in the Sun's habitable zone.
A .Right  B.Wrong  C.Not mentioned
20.The new finding is based on a thorough study of 170,000 stars in the Milky Way.
A.Right  B .Wrong  C.Not mentioned
21.The estimate of the number of planets that could support life is not very accurate.
A .Right  B.Wrong  C.Not mentioned
22.This is the first research finding about the planets with a chance for life.
A.Right  B.Wrong  C .Not mentioned

第 第 3  部分:概括大意和完成句子 (第 23~30 题,每题 1 分,共 8 分)

下面的短文后有 2 项测试任务: (1)第 23 ~ 26 题要求从所给的 6 个选项中为指定
段落每段选择 1 个小标题; (2)第 27 ~ 30 题要求从所给的 6 个选项中为每个句子确定
一个最佳选项。
Climate Change: The Long Reach
1 Earth is warming. Sea levels are rising. There's more carbon in the air, and Arctic ice
is melting faster than at any time in recorded history. Scientists who study the environment to
better gauge (评估) Earth's future climate now argue that these changes may not reverse for a
very long time.
2 People burn fossil fuels like coal and oil for energy. That burning releases carbon
dioxide, a colorless gas. In the air, this gas traps heat at Earth’s surface. And the more carbon
dioxide released, the more the planet warms. If current consumption of fossil fuels doesn’t slow,
the long-term climate impacts could last thousands of years — and be more severe than
scientists had been expecting. Climatologist Richard Zeebe of the University of Hawaii at
Manoa offers this conclusion in a new paper.
3 Most climate-change studies look at what's going to happen in the next century or so.
During that time, changes in the planet's environment could nudge (推动) global warming even
higher. For example: Snow and ice reflect sunlight back into space. But as these melt, sunlight
can now reach — and warm — the exposed ground. This extra heat raises the air temperature
even more, causing even more snow to melt. This type of rapid exaggeration of impacts is called
a “fast feedback”.
4 Zeebe says it's important to look at fast feedbacks. However, he adds, they're limited.
From a climate change perspective. "This century is the most important time for the next few
generations,” he told Science News. “But the world is not ending in 2100.” For his new study,
Zeebe now focuses on “slow feedbacks”. While fast feedback events unfold over decades or
centuries, slow feedbacks can take thousands of years. Melting of continental ice sheets and the
migration of plant life — as they relocate to more comfortable areas — are two examples of
slow feedbacks.
5 Zeebe gathered information from previously published studies investigating how such
processes played out over thousands of years during past dramatic changes in climate. Then he
came up with a forecast for the future that accounts for both slow and fast feedback processes.
Climate forecasts that use only fast feedbacks predict a 4.5 degree Celsius (8.1 degree
Fahrenheit) change by the year 3000. But slow feedbacks added another 1.5 °C — for a 6° total
increase, Zeebe reports. He also found that stow feedback events will cause global warming to
persist for thousands of years after people run out of fossil fuels to burn.
23.Paragraph 2 ____A____
24.Paragraph 3 ____D____
25.Paragraph 4 ____B____
26.Paragraph 5 ____C____

A.Impact of burning fossil fuels
B.Slow feedbacks
C.A prediction of future climate change
D.Fast feedbacks
E.Rising of sea levels
F. Unpredictability of feedback processes

27.Arctic ice has never been melting so fast in ____B____
28.Melting of snow and ice enables sunlight to reach ____E____
29.Zeebe came up with his future climate prediction by analyzing ____F____
30.After fossil fuels are used up, global warming will continue for ____A____

A.a very long time
B.recorded history
C.rapid exaggeration of impacts
D.the extra heat
E.the exposed ground
F. previously published studies

第 4  部分:阅读理解 (第 31~45 题,每题 3 分,共 45 分)
下面有 3 篇短文,每篇短文后有 5 道题。请根据短文内容,为每题确定 1 个最佳选
项。
第一篇  Approaches to Understanding Intelligences
It bays to be smart, but we are not all smart in the same way. You may be a talented
musician, but you might not be a good reader. Each of us is different.
Psychologists disagree about what is intelligence and what are talents or personal abilities.
Psychologists have two different views on intelligence. Some believe there is one general
intelligence. Others believe there are many different intelligences.
Some psychologists say there is one type of intelligence that can be measured with IQ
tests. These psychologists support their view with research that concludes that people who do
well on one kind of test for mental ability do well on other tests. They do well on tests using
words, numbers or pictures. They do well on individual or group tests, and written or oral tests.
Those who do poorly on one test, do the same on all tests.
Studies of the brain show that there is a biological basis for general intelligence. The brain
of intelligence people use less energy during problem solving. The brain waves of people with
higher intelligence show a quicker reaction. Some researchers conclude that differences in
intelligence result from differences in the speed and effectiveness of information processing by
the brain.
Howard Gardner, a psychologist at the Harvard School of Education, has four children.
He believes that all children are different and shouldn’t be tested by one intelligence test.
Although Gardner believes general intelligence exists, he doesn’t think it tells much about the
talents of a person outside of formal schooling. He think that the human mind has different
intelligences. These intelligences allow us to solve the kinds of problems we are presented with
in life. Each of us has different abilities within these intelligences. Gardner believes that the
purpose of school should be to encourage development of all of our intelligences.
Gardner says that his theory is based on biology. For example, when one part of the Brain
is injured, other parts of the brain still work. People who cannot talk because of Brain damage

can still sing. So, there is not just one intelligence to lose. Gardner has Identified 8 different
kinds of intelligence; linguistic, mathematical, spatial, musical, Interpersonal, intrapersonal,
body-kinesthetic(身体动觉的), and naturalistic.
31.What is the main idea of this passage?
A .How to understand intelligence.
B.The importance of intelligence.
C.The development of intelligence tests.
D.How to become intelligent.
32.Which of the following statements is true concerning general intelligence?
A.Most intelligent people do well on some intelligence tests.
B .People doing well on one type of intelligence test do well on other tests.
C.Intelligent people do not do well on group tests.
D.Intelligent people do better on written tests than on oral tests.
33.Gardner believes that ________.
A .children have different intelligences.
B.all children are alike.
C.children should take one intelligence test.
D.there is no general intelligence.
34.According to Gardner, schools should ________.
A.test students’ IQs.
B.train students who do poorly on tests.
C.focus on finding the most intelligent students.
D .promote development of all intelligences.
35.Gardner thinks that his theory has a ________.
A.musical foundation.
B .biological foundation.
C.intrapersonal foundation.
D.linguistic foundation.

未完.......


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